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Difference between DC motor and stepping motor

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Difference between DC motor and stepping motor


Due to the progress of motor technology in recent decades, it becomes more and more difficult to select a suitable motor for the project. According to some design standards, such as positioning accuracy, availability of driving power, torque, acceleration, etc., motors are selected for different applications. DC motor and stepping motor are most suitable for different applications. Many people mistakenly think that stepping motor and DC motor are very different. This article will mainly introduce the difference between DC motor and stepping motor.

Motor is an important part of industrial production. With different application scenarios, there are many different types of motors, which can be selected according to operation, voltage and application.

Motor equipment can almost be found in the application fields such as cameras, fans and DVD players. In recent decades, with the progress of motor technology and too many variables to be considered, it has become more difficult to select a suitable motor for the project. This article aims to help you understand the difference between stepping motor and DC motor.

What are DC motor and stepper motor


Stepping motor is a kind of motor that converts electric pulse signal into corresponding angular displacement or linear displacement. Each time a pulse signal is input, the rotor rotates by an angle or advances one step. The angular displacement or linear displacement of the output is proportional to the number of input pulses, and the rotation speed is proportional to the pulse frequency. Therefore, stepping motor is also called pulse motor.

According to the energy conversion principle, the stepping motor is no different from other motors, but the driving power supply, operation principle and control of the motor have its particularity. The excitation winding of the motor is directly connected to the power supply, but is controlled by the pulse signal, that is, by the electronic switch of the ring distributor, the excitation winding is connected to the power supply in turn according to the specified sequence after passing through the power amplifier. Since the excitation winding is arranged according to a certain rule in the physical space, after it is connected to the power supply in turn, a step-by-step rotating magnetic field will be generated to make the motor rotor rotate step by step, and with the increase of the pulse frequency, the motor speed will also be accelerated.

In the process of practical application, the stepper motor has the characteristics of low inertia, high positioning accuracy, no accumulated error, simple control and so on. It is widely used in electromechanical products. Stepper motors are widely used in textile machinery and equipment such as computerized embroidery machines. The characteristics of this type of stepper motors are low torque, fast starting response, low operating noise, stable operation, good control performance and low overall cost. It is widely used in ATM machines, inkjet printers, lettering machines, photo machines, painting equipment, medical instruments and equipment, computer peripherals and mass storage equipment, precision instruments, industrial control systems, office automation, robots and other fields, especially suitable for applications requiring stable operation, low noise, fast response, long service life and high output torque.

The accuracy of the stepping motor is generally achieved through the accurate control of the step angle. The step angle has many different subdivision gears, which can achieve accurate control. The control accuracy of the servo motor is guaranteed by the rotary encoder at the rear end of the motor shaft. Generally, the control accuracy of the servo motor is higher than that of the stepping motor.

The stepper motor does not rotate in a continuous manner, but moves in discrete steps or increments. Stepper motors are particularly suitable for applications that require precise positioning and repeatability as well as rapid response to start, stop, reverse, speed control, high holding torque and low acceleration.

Another key characteristic of stepper motor is that once it reaches the required position, it can keep the load stable. They are widely used in industrial control applications. In the stepping motor, the input is in the form of electrical pulse and the output is in the form of mechanical motion, which is inconspicuous in nature. It provides control as an advantage over mechanical power generation and should be used if accuracy is a major issue.

DC motor is also a kind of electromechanical equipment, which uses the interaction of magnetic field and conductor to convert electrical energy into rotating mechanical energy. These motors have existed since the 1830s and have been used in various applications. They are relatively cheap to purchase and install, reliable and controllable, and have hundreds of ratings. Due to its improved operating characteristics, DC motors are still best suited for applications that require constant torque over the motor speed range. It is a fast and continuously rotating motor, mainly used for anything that needs to rotate at high revolutions per minute (RPM).

Difference between DC motor and stepping motor

The design of DC motor and stepping motor is applicable to many fields of industry, so the difference between DC motor and stepping motor is difficult to understand. It may be a difficult task to choose between DC motor and stepping motor. Several factors play a crucial role in selecting the ideal motor equipment for the application. Here, we compare some properties between the two. The first is the nature of the cycle: the stepping motor operates in an open-loop mode, while the DC motor operates in a closed-loop mode.

Efficiency: whenever the stator magnetic pole is energized, the stepping motor will consume current under the maximum load, thus reducing energy utilization and heat loss. Therefore, if the efficiency is considered, the stepping motor is not the best choice. But DC motor is a mature technology, its efficiency can reach about 85%, which is very good for such a simple motor.

The difference between DC motor and stepper motor in application: stepper motors are commonly used in 3D printers, CNC mechanical equipment, medical imaging machines, printers, cameras and other precision control applications. DC motors can be used in the fields of telephone vibrators, power tools, windows, cranes and conveyor belts, and can also be used as priority applications.

This article mainly explains the difference between DC motor and stepping motor. Through reading the full text, we can understand that from the electrostatic principle to today's general motors, motors and generators have undergone a lot of changes. Although their hardware requirements are similar, the motor and generator operate differently. Nowadays, motors and generators have become a common electric tool, which is used in almost all electrical appliances. Among them, the motor and generator are different according to their power supply, the type of winding used, brush or brushless, air-cooled or water-cooled.



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